Suggested Citation for Chapter 11:

TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. (2017). PIRLS 2016 achievement scaling methodology. In M. O. Martin, I. V. S. Mullis, & M. Hooper (Eds.), Methods and Procedures in PIRLS 2016 (pp. 11.1-11.9). Retrieved from Boston College, TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center website: https://timssandpirls.bc.edu/publications/pirls/2016-methods/chapter-11.html

IEA–International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement
Boston College